During intake, an inmate performs the mundane tasks of making phone a call, getting his photo taken, showering and storing his personal property with jail officials. But he also undergoes critical medical and mental health screenings and answers questions that will help jail officials establish his risk for violence—including suicide—and strategically avert it.
Thus far, the current intake process works smoothly and has "stood the test of time," the Department of Correction's Luis Rivera, who oversees intake at Rikers, said in May.
So it's ironic that at the same time, jail officials have been saying since at least August that the intake process needs a major overhaul, one that involves the construction of a new $660 million, 1,500-bed jail.
Coming at a time when the city's crime rate is near an historic low and many say the city needs the money for other projects, the proposed new jail has some criminal justice advocates balking. Meanwhile, the Department of Correction (DOC) has recently revised its own projections of how many people the city is likely to put behind bars in the future.
An evolving plan
The city's jail system consists of a network of facilities, including two secure hospital wards, a floating jail anchored in the Bronx and borough lockups in Brooklyn, Queens and Manhattan. The bulk of the city's prisoners—who are either awaiting trial or serving sentences of a year or less for misdemeanors—are housed in one of the 10 jails on Rikers Island.
A new jail has been in discussion since at least 2006, but the city's plans have evolved substantially since then. First, the city unveiled plans to build a new jail in the South Bronx and expand its use of the Brooklyn House of Detention, with the aim of replacing deteriorated jail space on Rikers Island and keeping prisoners closer to courthouses and families. When the proposed Bronx jail met stiff community resistance, the focus shifted to building a new facility on Rikers Island.
Throughout that process, part of the rationale for the jail has been replacing decaying jail infrastructure on Rikers Island. But DOC also sees the new facility as part of a revised approach to prisoner intake.
That overhaul, which is scheduled to begin this summer, will ultimately convert the jail's intake system from one run by corrections staff working at seven jails across the island to one run by corrections staff who are intake specialists operating at one central intake facility, inside the new jail, scheduled to open in 2017.
Department of Correction spokesman Sharman Stein says the changes will speed up the intake process and make it possible for the jail to collect more information about inmates, improving safety and easing the inmate's reentry into society after their jail term.
Commissioner Dora Schriro says the overhaul will also make the jail run more efficiently, but says the plans are too embryonic yet to quantify those efficiencies. "Because we don't have an architect yet and haven't begun any design, we have some general forecast of what the staffing of the new facility would be. But to give you those kinds of specifics, we're certainly a ways out from that," she says.
In a May interview with City Limits, Schriro added that while it's important for the city to invest in education and in community and economic development, it's also important to spend enough on jails. "Some segment of the population is always going to be incarcerated," Schriro said. "So the city also has a responsibility to confine that population in facilities that are safe and secure."
Sizing up newcomers
Accurately assessing an inmate's mental and physical health and establishing his risk profile is one key to preventing suicides. It also helps prevent inmate-on-inmate violence, by facilitating the separation of aggressive inmates from more docile ones. (In 2010, the jail had two suicides. This year, thus far it has had one. In the first four months of fiscal year 2011, there were 1,345 inmate fights, including 19 slashing or stabbing incidents.)
Correctly identifying each inmate's risk for violence also reduces the costs of building and maintaining jails, because maximum security buildings cost more than minimum or medium security ones.
But it can be hard to accurately screen and assess inmates for a variety of reasons. In some cases, jail staff members don't pay enough attention to the inmates during intake, following the scripts and questionnaires given them by supervisors in a rote fashion, said Jennifer Parish, a legal aid attorney who advocates for the civil rights of mentally ill jail inmates. "When you're assessing people, it's not just asking them questions," Parish said. "You're reading non verbal cues, reading their body language. I think it's pretty different from training people to go through a script."
In other cases, "people who are suffering from depression may not be forthcoming about their condition," said board of corrections member Catherine Abate at a recent meeting of the board, which oversees city jails and the DOC. Inmates may also attempt to obscure other conditions and risk factors.
The jail's new centralized intake system could increase the accuracy of intake screenings and assessments. Under the new system, the jail staff responsible for assessments and screenings won't be distracted by other job duties. Because the number of jail staff involved in screening and assessing new inmates will fall, it will be easier for their managers to ensure that they're doing it correctly, Parish reasoned.
In addition, the specialists will have more time to observe inmates before sending them to their permanent housing, Schriro said. With 900 intake beds, newly admitted inmates will be able to remain under the observation of these specialists for up to four days.
Overhauling the intake system could also help the jail improve its efforts to help plan for the release of inmates, says Michael Jacobson, executive director of Vera Institute of Justice, a think tank that researches criminal justice issues, and a former commissioner of the DOC.
In 2003, Parish negotiated with the city a settlement that requires the jail and various city agencies to improve their efforts to help mentally ill inmates continue their treatment when they leave jail. Since then, court monitors have determined that DOC's efforts to plan for the post-release treatment of mentally ill inmates have improved, but are still insufficient. Jacobson says Schriro "really wants to start looking at how the stuff you do at intake can impact what they do when they leave and ensure they don't come back."